The Local Government Act of 1993, (ACT 462) and the National Development Planning System Act of 1994 (ACT 480) designate the District Assemblies as the Planning Authority with the mandate to plan, initiate and implement development programmes at the local level. Pursuant to the above, the Kwahu East District AssemblY prepared a four year Medium Term Development Plan spanning from 2010 to 2013 based on the Ghana Shared Growth Development Agenda (GSDA I) and in line with NDPC guidelines.
After a successful implementation of the MTDP 2010 – 2013, the district set out to preare its 2014 – 2017 Plan based on the Medium-Term Development Policy Framework (2014-2017) which is also known as Ghana Shared Growth Development Agenda (GSDA II).
The Medium-Term Development Policy Framework (2014-2017), thus represents Government policy framework within which all DAs must prepared their MTDPs for the period 2014-2017. The central goal of this policy framework is to accelerate the growth of the economy so that Ghana can achieve middle-income status within a measurable planning period. The framework is anchored around seven strategic priorities: ensuring and sustaining macroeconomic stability; expanded improvement of production infrastructure; accelerated agriculture infrastructure modernization and agro-based industrial development; sustainable partnerships between government and the private sector; developing human resource for national development; transparent and accountable governance; and reducing poverty and income inequalities.
The Kwahu East District Assembly shall work assiduously in partnership with all stakeholders to ensure total and wholesome socio-economic development of the district.
The Kwahu East District Assembly exists to promote sustainable socio-economic transformation of the district through effective and judicious mobilization and utilization of human and material resources.
The functions of the Assembly as given in the Local Government Act, 1993 (Act 462) are as follows:
- Be responsible for the overall development of the District.
- Formulate and execute plans, programmes and strategies for the effective, mobilization of resources necessary for the overall development of the District.
- Promote and support productive activity and social development in the District and remove any obstacles to initiate and development.
- Initiate programmes for the development of basic infrastructure and provide district works and services in the District.
- Be responsible for the levying and collecting taxes, rates, duties and fees.
- Be responsible for the development, improvement and management of human settlements and the environment in the district
- Collaborate with the relevant National and Local Security Agencies to maintain security and public safety.
- Promote justices by ensuring ready access to courts.
- Perform such other function as may be provide under any other enactment.
- Control, regulate, inspect, supervise, licensing of premises upon which any profession, occupation, trade, or business is carried on.
- Issuance of Building permits.
- Birth & Death registration.
- Issuance of Business operation licenses.
- Approval of Planning schemes layouts.
- Development Control-orderly physical development of settlements.
- Waste management.
- Revenue mobilization
- Fixing of rates.
- Provision of basic socio-economic infrastructure, including Schools, Markets, Lorry parks, institutional Toilets and Roads.
- Facilitate the provision of Water
- Maintenance of peace and security
- Sports development
The Kwahu East District was carved out of Kwahu South District by Legislative Instrument (L.I) 1839 and inaugurated on 29th February 2008 with Abetifi as the District capital. The District is situated on the northern part of the Eastern Region (fig. 1.2). It shares common boundaries with the Kwahu North district to the east, Kwahu South District to the south, Fanteakwa District to the south-east and Asante-Akim North of the Ashanti Region to the north (fig. 1.4). Thus the District is linked up with many Districts and this promotes commercial activities among the District capitals and other nearby communities. The total land size of the District is 860 square kilometers.
The Legislative Instrument (L.I 1839) established the Kwahu East District Assembly as the highest political and administrative authority with the mandate to initiate development and co-ordinate all activities aimed at sustained development of the district (Fig 1.14).
The District Assembly has a total of 34 members. Out of this number, 10 representing 1/3 of membership have been appointed by government in accordance with the Local Government Act 1993, Act 462. There are 4 females representing 11.8%.
Meetings of the Assembly are presided over by the Presiding Member (PM) who is elected from among the Members by two-thirds (2/3) of all the Members of the Assembly.
A number of established Sub-Committees function as operating arms of the Executive Committee and assist in the implementation of specific activities of the Assembly. Among the Sub-Committees of the Kwahu East District Assembly are:
- Finance and Administration Sub-Committee
- Development Planning Sub-Committee
- Social Services Sub-Committee
- Justice and Security Sub-Committee
- Works Sub-Committee
- Tourism Sub-Committee
Pursuance to Act 462, the executive and the administrative functions of the Assembly are performed by the Executive Committee which has a membership of eleven (11) with the District Chief Executive as its chairman. A number of established sub-committees function as operating arms of the executive committee, and assist in the implementation of specific activities of the Assembly. Their work is complemented by the Public Relations and Complaints Unit (PRCU) headed by the Hon. Presiding Member.
The Central Administration which is headed by the District Co-ordinating Director (DCD) also exist to assist in the general administration of the District Assembly. To facilitate the work of the District Assembly, the Local Government Act 1993, Act 462 and L.I 1961 make provision for the establishment of a number of Units with varied but complementary functions under the central administration including: the District Planing Co-ordinating Unit, Human Resource Unit, Internal Audit Unit, Registary among others.
The District has been divided into 8 Town/Area Councils and 24 Electoral Areas. Out of the 8 Council Areas, there are two Town Councils while the rest are Area Councils (Table 1.29). These councils exist to ensure smooth administration, promote decentralization system of governance and bring decision making process closure to the people at the local level.
However, the functions of the sub-structures are affected by lack of permanent office accommodation and logistics. They also lack the requisite permanent administrative staff to see to the day-to-day activities of the Area. The District Assembly planned to provide at least an office annually to address the gap in office accommodation in the 2010 – 2013 DMTDP. However, only one of such offices was built at the Kwahu Tafo Area Council. It is expected that another will be built at the Nkwatia/Aduamoa Area Council going forward. The Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development should also come out clearly on the way forward in terms of staffing the Sub-district Structures.
|No||Name Of Council||Electoral Areas||Council Headquarters|
|1.||Abetifi Town Council||1. Akyemase
2.Kubease-Odwenase/ Dome Christian Quarters
|2.||Abene Area Council||1. Abene
|3.||Dwerebease Area Council||1. Dwerebease-Onyemso||Dwerebease|
|4.||Kwahu Tafo/Bukuruwa||1. Amanfrom
|5.||Nkwatia/Aduamoa Area Council||1. Dompim
|6.||Oframase/Ankoma Area Council||1. Oframase
|7.||Pepease Town Council||1. Pepease||Pepease|
|8.||Suminakese Area Council||
The Kwahu East District is yet to receive its full complement of Decentralized Departments as specified in L.I 1961. There are nine out of the eleven decentralized departments in the district. The few that have already established their structures also face numerous challenges ranging from inadequate logistics as well as lack of permanent office and residential accommodations.
The institutional survey revealed a gloomy picture that calls for urgent support for all the departments and agencies in the district. This is as a result of a number of problems that have bedevilled these institutions, thus inhibiting their smooth operation.
Since the institutional capacity in the District is co-relational to the plan implementation process, there is therefore the need to make appropriate interventions to address the problems identified.
The Assembly must take steps to address the immediate challenges that are within its budgetary strength. The departments also owe it a duty to use innovative ways to court donor support.
Owing to the District’s lack of its relevant complementary Departments and Agencies necessary to fully function and provide one-stop-shop services to clients of the Assembly, a number of services that should have been provided in the District are rather obtained from the Kwahu South District. This often times creates a lot of inconveniences to clients. Table 1.30 shows the established Decentralised departments in line with L.I 1961. The total staff strength of the District Assembly is 213 comprising 162 (77%) males and 45 (23%) females.
Other key departments/agencies that are yet to be established in the district are given below:
- Department of Trade and Industry
- Department of Natural Resources Conservation
- Business Advisory Center
- Department of Co-operatives
- Lands Valuation Board
- Labour Office
|No||Department||Location||Staff strength||Core functions||Remarks|
|1||Central Administration||Abetifi||61||20||81||Co-ordination, planning, budgeting, rating, HR, records, procurement etc||No permanent office|
|2||Finance||Abetifi||2||2||4||Ensuring sound financial management of the Assembly||No permanent office|
|3||Social Welfare and Community Devt||Abetifi||7||4||11||Assist the Assembly to formulate and implement social welfare and community development policies||No permanent office|
|4||Physical Planning||Abetifi||5||1||6||Responsible for proper spatial development and land use||No permanent office|
|5||Agriculture||Abetifi||22||5||27||Formulation and implementation of agricultural policies and extension services||No permanent office|
|6||Disaster Management||Abetifi||23||3||26||Assist in planning and implementation of programmes to prevent and/or mitigate disaster in the District||No permanent office|
|7||Works||Abetifi||6||0||6||Assist the Assembly to formulate policies on works||No permanent office|
|8||Health||Pepease||8||5||13||Responsible for general health care delivery and monitoring||No permanent office|
|9||Education Youth and Sports||Pepease||28||5||33||Responsible for pre-school, special school, basic education, youth and sports, development etc||No permanent office|
The district falls within the wet semi-equatorial climatic zone which experiences substantial amount of precipitation/rainfall. It experiences the double maxima rainfall pattern namely the major and minor rainy seasons which promotes active farming activities throughout the year. The major rainy season starts from April and ends in July. On the other hand, the minor rainy season starts from September, ending in October. Annual average rainfall is between 1580mm and 1780mm. Rainfall intensity however, decreases towards the Voltaian basin.
The district comes under the influence of two main air masses namely, the Tropical Maritime airmass (MT) and the tropical continental (CT). The mT hits the district twice a year thereby causing the two rainy seasons. The two occasions are April to July and then September to October. Between the months of November and March, the district is affected by the cT air mass making the area warm and dry.
Mean monthly temperature ranges from as high as 30oc in the dry season but declines to about 26 oc in the wet season. It is worthy to note that the relatively higher altitude has moderating influence on the local temperature. The weather reflects the invigorating and salubrious, mild cold mountainous climate which makes the district the choicest place for relaxation within a healthy environment.
Relative humidity of about 75% (dry season) and 80% of (raining season) create a relatively good atmosphere for socio-economic activities like trade and farming in dry season and rainy season respectively.
The topography of the district is generally undulating. It is mountainous and interspersed with low lying plains to the west and the east. The mountainous terrain is rugged and characterised by the configuration of several summits and steep slopes of hard sandstone and quartzite ridges, mainyl rock out-crops and scarps. The district lies within three physiographic regions namely the southern voltaian Plateau, the Forest Dissected Plateau which consists of series of escarpments and rises from 220m to 640m above sea level. The second physiographic region is the Southern Voltain Plateau and the Voltain Basin which stretches from the north-eastern part of the district and contains the Afram Valley. The two regions contain hills which range from 60m to 150m above sea level.
The District is notable for containing the highest habitable point in Ghana which is located at Abetifi, the district capital and rises to a height of 633.98m (2080 ft) above sea level. This unique geographic feature makes Abetifi, a potential tourism destination in the district if it is well harnessed.
Kwahu East may be said to be endowed with rich water resources which is capable of meeting the water needs of the entire population if consciously harnessed. The district is drained mainly by the Afram River which is a major tributary of the Volta River. The Volta Lake has become an important resource in the District providing employment to many fishermen and fish mongers who have settled along the lake. Communities such as Kotoso, Sempoa, Asempaneye, Tokrom and Hyewohoden are well noted for their fishing activities. The farmlands along the Afram River are low-lying. This, coupled with the abundance of water from the lake, make these areas have the greates potential to support agricultural development, particularly irrigation farming. It could be a major source of irrigation for the production of vegetables all year round while at the same time providing opportunity for developing water sports such as yatch cruising or speed boat at Kotoso in particular.
Other rivers or riverlets that drain the district include Asuboni, Kyekyenamono, Oku, Bupru and many others. Most of these riverlets can be dammed to provide water for irrigation purposes as they all flow through mainly the plain and arable areas which are important for crop production while the groundwater which abounds in areas like Kwahu Tafo and Nkwatia could be developed to provide raw material for the production of mineral water.
The escarpments have also given rise to a number of Waterfalls in the district which have largely remained undeveloped. These include the Oworobong, Oku Abena and Kyekyenamono Waterfalls among others which are in themselves source of tourist attractions.
|Orders||Number of settlements||Total Centrality Score||Names of settlements|
|2nd||2||200-2000||Kwahu Tafo, Nkwatia|
|3rd||3||100-199||Pepease, Aduamoa, Suminakese|
|4th||14||Below 100||All other settlements|
Source: KEDA – DPCU, 2014.
The scalogram indicates that the first order settlement, Abetifi, provides higher order services to its inhabitants and the rest of the district. These services range from security, judicial and administrative services. Apart from its main administrative functions, Abetifi serves as an educational centre for the entire area providing all the levels of education up to the tertiary level.
The second order settlements namely Tafo and Nkwatia also provide other lower order services in their catchment areas. For example, Tafo provides banking and educational services to communities in its range such as Kotoso, Nteso, Bokuruwa, Ankoma, Oframase, Burukuase, Asempaneye and Ahinase while Nkwatia provides both educational and administrative functions to the Nkwatia-Aduamoa Area Council.
The third order settlements comprise of the other Area Council Capitals and other major settlements in the district. These settlements have populations within above 1000 and provide minor services to surrounding villages. The areas council capitals such as Pepease, Suminakese and Oframase provide administrative services while Kotoso, Miaso, Hweehwee and Sempoa serve as major market centers to the surrounding villages.
The forth order settlements are those settlement that do not provide any special functions to other settlements. They are rather the recipients and the beneficiaries of the high order services provided by the settlements in the other orders of the hierarchy.
The results of the PHC 2010 indicate that the population size of the district is 77,125 accounting for 2.9 percent of the total population in the Eastern Region as against 67,498 in 2000. Of the total population, 37,620 (48.8%) are males and 39,505 (51.2%) are females giving rise to a lower sex ratio of 95.2 compared with the regional average of 96.2. This shows that the female population of the district is more than that of the male. The spatial distribution of population indicates that 67.1 percent of the total population is found in the rural localities while 32.9 percent is in the urban areas reflecting the rural nature of the district. In terms of sex by locality, 45.8 percent of the urban population is males as against 54.2 percent females. The situation in the rural localities is however to the contrary where the proportion of males (50.2%) is higher than females (49.8%).
The age structure for the district shows a relatively large proportion of children under 15 years (39.5%) and a small proportion of older people 60 years and above (10.8%). The age group 25 – 29 years has the lowest proportion of the district population accounting for only 6.3 percent. The age structure in terms of sex follows almost the same pattern as the district average with a slight difference in terms of sex. The proportion of the male population under 15 years is higher accounting for 42.1 percent as against 37.0 percent of their female counterparts. There is however a greater proportion of females (60 years and older) than males accounting for 12.8 percent as against 8.7 percent of their male counterparts.
The relatively higher young age composition is an indication of high fertility rate. There is therefore the need to intensify fertility education programmes that target child spacing and contraceptive practices which are necessary to reduce the high levels of fertility in the district. Non-contraceptive and non family planning practices and attitudes that reduce high fertility also need to be encouraged and sustained while the Assembly also takes steps to expand and improve educational infrastructure to absorb the increasing number of school going children.
Age-sex structure and Pyramid
The pyramid indicates a broad base which narrows as the population ages. The age structure and the sex composition of the Kwahu East district follow the regional pattern. The district population has a youthful structure with a broad base consisting of large numbers of children and a conical top of a small number of elderly persons that is characteristic of a developing country. Figure 1.23 shows that a large new cohort is born every year as displayed at the bottom of the pyramid (ages 0-4 years). As cohorts age, they inevitably lose members either through death or migration or both. This is shown by the narrowing of the population pyramid as it peaks. The peaking of the population accelerates after age 54 years. Another feature of the district population pyramid is that females in the oldest age groups form a substantial majority.
Source: Ghana Statistical Service, 2010 Population and Housing Census
The migrant population in the District is about 37 percent. This constitutes a significant proportion of the district’s population and a potential for inter-cultural relationships and development if well harnessed. The 2010 Population census shows that more people of Volta origin are found in the Kwahu East District constituting 16.6 percent with the lowest coming from the Upper West Region (0.8%). There is also a significant proportion of person from Greater Accra (10.1%) and Ashanti Region (6.5%). Details on migration can be obtained from the District Profile (2013).
The 2010 Population census puts the economically active and employed population in the district at 96.8% for males and compares favourably with females who constitute 96.0% while the economically active but unemployed population constitutes 3.2% for males and 4% for females. This implies the need for mainstreaming gender in the development programmes of the District. Generally, 28.6 percent of the population is economically not active comprising children and the aged. Of the economically active population, 74.4% is self-employed as against 25.6% employees. The need to promote Local Economic Development with a focus on SMEs cannot be overemphasized.
The predominant occupation in the District is subsistence agriculture employing 55.1% of the economically active population in the district. Trade and Commerce employs 15.2% with 6.7% into manufacturing while other sectors like transport, professional, technical, administrative and managerial sector constitute 23% (Source, GSS 2010). The agriculture sub-sector therefore requires targeted investments in the form of input subsidies and ready market for the produce as part of the measures to improve incomes and reduce poverty.
The 2010 population figure yields a density of 90 persons per sq km slightly higher than the national density of 79.3 and the regional density of 89.5 persons per sq. km. The spatial distribution of population in the district also emphasises the predominance of rural setting as only three of the 110 communities have populations exceeding the urban criterion of 5000. The population distribution in terms of Area/Town Councils and communities is shown at the appendixes. Fig 1.24 shows the population distribution of the district
Source: KEDA DPCU, 2014